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2-butanone nature
Apr 28, 2018

Physical properties
Appearance and properties: colorless liquid, smell like acetone.
Melting point (°C): -85.9
Relative density (water = 1): 0.81
Boiling Point (°C): 79.6
Relative vapor density (air = 1): 2.42
Saturated vapor pressure (kPa): 9.49 (20°C)
Heat of combustion (kJ/mol): 2441.8
Critical temperature (°C): 260
Critical pressure (MPa): 4.40
Octanol/water partition coefficient logarithmic value: 0.29
Flash point (°C): -9
Explosive Limit% (V/V): 11.4
Ignition temperature (°C): 404
Lower explosion limit% (V/V): 1.7
Solubility: soluble in water, ethanol, and ether, soluble in oil.
Chemical properties
1. Since methyl ethyl ketone has a carbonyl group and an active hydrogen adjacent to a carbonyl group, various reactions easily occur. Condensation takes place with heating with hydrochloric acid or sodium hydroxide to give 3,4-dimethyl-3-hexen-2-one or 3-methyl-3-hepten-5-one. When exposed to sunlight for a long time, ethane, acetic acid, condensation products, etc. are generated. Nitric acid generates biacetyl when oxidized. Acetic acid is formed when oxidized with a strong oxidizing agent such as chromic acid Butanone is relatively stable to heat, and is cracked at temperatures above 500°C to form ketene or methyl ketene. When condensation occurs with aliphatic or aromatic aldehydes, high molecular weight ketones, cyclic compounds, ketals, and resins are formed. For example, condensation with formaldehyde in the presence of sodium hydroxide first produces 2-methyl-1-butanol-3-one followed by dehydration to methylisopropenyl ketone.
The compound is resinified when exposed to sunlight or ultraviolet light. Condensation with phenol produces 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)butane. Reaction with aliphatic esters in the presence of a basic catalyst produces β-diketones. Acylation occurs with an acid anhydride in the presence of an acidic catalyst to produce β-diketones. It reacts with hydrogen cyanide to produce cyanohydrin. Reaction with ammonia generates ketopiperidine derivatives. The α-hydrogen atom of methyl ethyl ketone is easily substituted by halogen to produce various halogenated ketones, for example, chlorine and 3-chloro-2-butanone. The reaction with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine gave yellow 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (m.p. 115°C).
2. Stability: stable.
3. Incompatible materials: Strong oxidants, bases, strong reducing agents.
4. Polymerization hazard: Does not polymerize.