Physical properties: Acetonitrile, also known as methyl nitrile, is a colorless liquid that is highly volatile, has a special odor similar to ether, has excellent solvent properties, and can dissolve a variety of organic, inorganic, and gaseous substances. It is toxic, immiscible with water and alcohol.
Acetonitrile molecular weight 41.05, melting point (-43 ± 2) °C, boiling point 81.6 °C, colorless liquid at room temperature and pressure, density 0.7768g/cm3 (25/4 °C), with aromatic odor, but can cause olfactory fatigue It is not easy to perceive its existence. Volatile, at 24 °C, the vapor pressure is 11.53kPa, the vapor density is 1.42g/L, the saturated concentration in air is 9.6% (20°C, 101.31kPa), the saturated air density is 1.04g/L; soluble in water, It is also easily miscible with ethanol, ether, acetone, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, vinyl chloride, etc. The aqueous solution is unstable and can be hydrolyzed to acetic acid and ammonia; acetonitrile can release HCN when heated.
Chemical properties: colorless, transparent liquid with ether-like iso-aromatic. It is miscible with water, methanol, methyl acetate, acetone, ether, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride and vinyl chloride.
1. Acetonitrile is a stable compound that is not easily oxidized or reduced, but is a triple bond between carbon and nitrogen and is prone to addition reactions. For example: addition with hydrogen halides, addition with hydrogen sulfide, addition of alcohols and acids in the presence of inorganic acids. Or acid anhydride addition.
2. Hydrolysis occurs in the presence of an acid or base to form an amide that is further hydrolyzed to acid:
3. Reduction to produce ethylamine.
4. Reaction with Grignard reagent, the product was hydrolyzed to give ketone.
5. Acetonitrile reacts with metallic sodium, sodium alkoxide, or sodium amide.